Category Archives: water

Gemeskut (Shadoof) in Central Romania

While traveling in central Romania, we ran across a narrow valley with shallow groundwater.  Several of the farms along the roadway had gemeskuts.  They are being used for stockwatering. The gemeskut has a history that goes back to ancient Egypt … Continue reading

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Thomas Crapper and the Word “Crap”

By Mark Forsyth (edited), excerpt from The Etymologicon What is the real relationship between Thomas Crapper and the word “crap” (or “crapper”)? Thomas Crapper was born in Yorkshire in 1836.  In 1853, a year after Edward Jennings’ patented his version of … Continue reading

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Sir John Harington: Inventor of the Flush Toilet

Sir John Harington (baptized 4 August 1560 – 20 November 1612), of Kelston, but baptized in London, was an English courtier, author, and translator popularly known as the inventor of the flush toilet.  He became a prominent member of Queen Elizabeth … Continue reading

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Water History Chisled in Stone

Here are two prominent examples of water history that either etched or illustrated in stone.  The first is from a tombstone (in essence it’s 2-D).  It describes the difficulties an engineer had with the construction of a Roman aqueduct (NG … Continue reading

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The Aral Sea: An Environmental Tragedy

By Mark Synnott (NG, Jun 2015) The Aral Sea straddles Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and for thousands of years was fed by two major rivers, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya.  Having no outflow, the sea’s water level was maintained … Continue reading

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Moray: Inca Mystery Circles

The Moray archaeological site lies on high plain about halfway between Machu Picchu and the Inca capital of Cusco.  According to water engineer and paleo-hydrologist Kenneth R. Wright (WEF, Sep 2008): The site is most famous for its three large … Continue reading

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Tipon: An Inca Irrigation Masterwork

While in Cusco, Peru, our group took a taxi into the mountains above the city.  Located above 11,000 feet, is the archaeological site Tipon which served as an estate for Inca nobility.  According to Kenneth Wright (WE&T, Sep 2008): Tipon … Continue reading

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